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Languages may be synthetic and analytical according to their grammatical structure. In synthetic languages, such as for instance Russian, the grammatical relations between words are expressed by means of inflections: In analytical languages, such as English, the grammatical relations between words are expressed by means of form words and word order: Analytical forms are mostly proper to verbs. An analytical verb-form consists of one or more form words, which have no lexical meaning and only express one or more of the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood, and one notional word, generally an infinitive or a participle: He has come, I am reading.
The analytical forms are: Tense and Aspect verb-forms the Continuous form: I am writing, the Perfect form: I have written, the Perfect Continuous form: I have been writing, the Future Indefinite: I shall write, all the other forms of the Future; also the interrogative and the negative forms of the Present and Past Indefinite: He does not sing.
I was invited to the theatre. The analytical form of the Subjunctive Mood: I should go there if I had time. In all these analytical forms the form word is an auxiliary verb.
Грамматика английского языка / В.Л. Каушанская / |
For detailed treatment see chapters on the verb. However, the structure of a language is never purely synthetic or purely analytical. Accordingly in the English language there are: The synthetic forms of the Subjunctive Mood: Owing to the scarcity of synthetic forms the order of words, which is fixed in English, acquires extreme importance: The fisherman caught a fish.
A deviation from the general principle of word order is possible only in special cases. One of the marked features of the English language is the extensive use of substitutes.
Грамматика английского языка. В.Л. Каушанская и др.
A word substitute saves the repetition of a word in certain conditions.